Ethics is very difficult but at the same time very important when it comes to graphic design. In the end the decision comes down to the designer. Everyone has their own views on what is ethical, which makes graphic design that much more difficult. For example if you were given the brief to design a campaign for cigarettes, you as the
designer must decide whether or not to undertake that particular project and if so what ways can you approach the task in the most appropriate manner possible. But in doing work such as this you are reflecting what kind of person you are to everyone viewing, and based on the subject could offend people and severely damage your work reputation.
1. How does having an open mind enable you to develop a style? In graphic design having an open mind is essential. Without going into this industry with an open mind you simply would not last. In developing your own style it always helps to have an open mind. Mainly so you can absorb other designers ideas an d begin to understand
what components of their work made them successful. With this knowledge you begin to
incorporate some of the other designer’s ideas as well as your own to develop a style.
2. Why is it important to have some unique skills and aesthetic elements in your creative process? It is very important to have unique skills and elements in your creative process as it is essential in order to come up with a unique finished work. Same is boring and in exploring different ways of doing your creative process you are also creating your own unique style.
3. Why should you research artists and hold small personal critiques on their work at regular intervals? It is important to do this so you can see what parts of their work were successful and those which were not. In doing this try and incorporate their successful ideas into your work and look into other ways of improving the ideas that were unsuccessful.
4. Why should you be aware of your likes/dislikes and your strengths/weaknesses? You should be aware of your likes and dislikes so that you can compare them to current trends in society and determine whether you need to explore your dislikes more to help with your work. However when it comes to strengths and weaknesses as a designer your should always build your works based on your strengths but at the same time you should be looking into some of your weaknesses and finding ways to improve on them so that you can add them to your strengths in future.
5. Is style definitive or does it evolve you? Style is definitely something that evolves a designer as through time peoples styles will begin to change and adapt to whatever is going on in the world and society. Of course in a lot of cases this does not simply just happen, it takes a lot of practice and research. So from person to person you will see changes in style and how far along each style has evolved.
6. How does attitude affect your style and other professional’s perception of you? It is always important to approach a job with the right attitude as it reflects the way that you will perform and can impact on the final result. Even with a professional designer with ten years experience attitude is important as it can make or break the final work. But your attitude also reflects on you and can determine a professional’s perception of you. Your attitude can display what type of person you are and how you would perform in the workplace.
7. What are habits and why is it important to be aware of them as a designer? Habits are important in graphic design as they can help you push through as a designer. Habits are an automatic pattern of behaviour in reaction to a specific situation and are usually acquired through repetition. In a designers case one of the most important habits that all designers should get into is meeting all deadlines, as deadlines are perhaps the most important things in the industry and if the designer can hold onto such a habit then their work efficiency will greatly increase.
8. What does time management offer a designer? Time management is a brilliant way to manage your work life and have everything completed on the due date. Having good time management can also handling stress in a working environment. So having good time management ultimately gives the designer a stress free environment and the chance to meet all possible deadlines.
9. How do you improve on time management? One very common way of improving on time management is to draw up a time management plan. In this plan you write down the due date/deadlines for all your current jobs and begin to set out which days to work on which jobs. Or even do little bits for all your works each day and set it out in such a way that at least as day or two before the deadline the jobs are done.
10. What is a conscience and how does it affect both your style and your professional practice? A conscience is motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles that govern a person’s thoughts and actions. In a lot of ways your conscience affects almost every decision you make. But in the world of graphic design it can affect both your style and your professional practice. Your style will always be your won and acceptable by your standards but the question is how will society see your work? Different people think differently about certain things and it will be difficult to develop a style appropriate to everyone. But as for your professional practice, there will be a time when you will be asked to do a job that may clash with your own ethical views and it is at that point in time that you must ask yourself whether to ignore you conscience and compromise or turn down the job remembering that whatever you do and create reflects on you and your business.
11. How do generally accepted morals and your own moral stance affect your design and your professional practice? As said above the public’s set of morals will not always match that of your own. As a designer you must decide whether to compromise and do whatever is asked of you or reject it and do only what you feel is right. Remembering that your works are not only reflecting on you but your business as well.
Study on deadlines
1. What is a deadline? The point in time where something must be completed.
2. What is involved in making a deadline on time? In order to meet any deadline you need preparation and good time management skills.
3. What are the consequences of breaking a deadline? The consequences of breaking a deadline vary from each occupation and workplace but are all negative none the less. As a student breaking a deadline would result in ten percent off your final result or failure of that unit. In the workforce it could mean losing your job or a possible lawsuit.
4. What can you do to better meet deadlines? A good way to meet deadlines is to draw yourself up a time management plan and allocate a number of hours to dedicate to your works.
5. How do you prioritise deadlines? There are two ways that this can be done. First is the due date of the job and second is the overall difficulty of it. Try and get the ones with a closer deadline out of the way but at the same time do not leave the hard ones till last, try and balance out the work between the ones with the closer deadline to the more difficult jobs.
6. How do deadlines alter the perception of business and individuals? From time to time you may miss a deadline or two but missing a deadline does not just reflect on you as an individual but your business as well and in most cases will have a great impact on your business.
7. How do general business deadlines differ from your graphic design deadlines? The difference between general business and graphic design deadlines is that when it comes to a general business deadlines are a more flexible and if not met can result in a discount. When it comes to graphic design it is all about deadlines. Missing one will reflect on not only you but your whole business and can in some cases result in a lawsuit.
Study on cultural relationships with design
1. The Celts did many things that have filtered through to modern society in not only Australia but the world. One aspect of Celtic life that is still around today is Celtic art. Celtic art has been manipulated and used in many modern day artworks and designs. Perhaps Celtic art’s best known and most influential phase is more correctly known as Insular art of Ireland and Great Britain in the Early Middle Ages, which produced the Book of Kells and other masterpieces. Celtic art is ornamental, straight lines are avoided and only occasionally using symmetry, without the imitation of nature, often involving complex symbolism. Celtic art has used a variety of styles and has shown influences from other cultures in their knot work, spirals, key patterns, lettering, zoomorphics, plant forms and human figures. Many painters, calligraphers, and other artists have worked with the themes drawn from ancient or medieval Celtic art, or else inspired by Celtic literary themes. Some of this work has remained very close to the style of La Tène or illuminated manuscript originals, but much of it has a distinctly new feel. Modern Celtic-themed art can be seen today in a wide range of logos, jewellery, crafts, postcards, and so on. Celtic art is just one of the many things that has lasted through the centuries and filtered through the world going from one country to another.
2. Aboriginal art is not only a beautiful piece of art but to the aboriginal people it can be many things. It can be an image of a past event, or even depict different clans and tribal groups of the people. But in many cases it was a way of telling the stories of the dreaming. Dreamtime stories were the aboriginal beliefs of how the world came to be. One very well known dreamtime story is the rainbow serpent. Aboriginal people expressed and displayed their religion in their artworks and for this reason the artwork was just as important to its audiences as well as its artist. All artists in some way express their emotions, religious beliefs or political beliefs at some point in their career. And each artwork is much more than just a visual image to each artist. It is through these artworks that artist’s opinions and beliefs can affect both themselves and other cultural groups.
3. M.C. Escher’s work is held in high regard by most designers and lay people for his overall detail and dedication to his work. He is known for his often mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints. These feature impossible constructions, explorations of infinity, architecture, and tessellations. His works show impossible amounts of detail and some are not images of anything solid but are instead images from his imagination. Although Escher did not have mathematical training, his understanding of mathematics was largely visual and intuitive. Escher's work had a strong mathematical component, and more than a few of the worlds which he drew are built around impossible objects such as the Necker cube and the Penrose triangle. I myself am also impressed by the amount of dedication he had to his work. The amount of detail he puts into each individual work is extraordinary, and that there is absolutely no mathematical error whatsoever in any of his artworks. He pulls off works that seem simply impossible.
4. Society has always had a great interest about the past and its cultures, but there are several reasons for this. But the main one that connects all the dots is learning about it. We learn about their religions, the way they lived, the way they did their artworks and their designs. We look to past cultures for inspiration. As mentioned before this inspiration could come from religion, life itself or art, for example Celtic art. Their artwork has filtered through society, continuing to evolve and is still used today in modern day design an art. Aboriginal art is also a subject that creates great interest about the past and their cultures, and it is their art that helps us understand this. But as artist we also share a keen interest about past art movements. There are several different art movements and they will all continue to grow. Some art movements that have attracted enormous amounts of interest from the art world include, cubism, surrealism, expressionism, symbolism, Impressionism, Art Nouveau and minimalism.
5. As stated in the last paragraph we look back at the past for inspiration but sometimes even solutions for design to be used in modern society. Whether this would be designs for furniture or architectural designs. But looking to the past for inspiration can greatly benefit a graphic designer. As a designer we must learn ways to communicate ideas to a large variety of audiences. A lot of the time looking back to the past for inspiration can benefit the designers overall results. We can manipulate past ideas to create new ones. Designers extract bits and pieces from past designs and piece them together and create the effect of a new concept. In doing this we are able to attract a bigger variety of viewers.
6. Ancient art honestly hasn’t affected my life all that much. There are certainly aspects of its history that do interest me like the reasoning for such works. But there are only some components of ancient art that I use in my artworks. These are mainly patterns that can be compared to a lot of Celtic art, usually resembling their Celtic knots. But other than that ancient art has had very little effect on my life and the way I see art.
7. Much like the question above I feel as though I have very little cultural influence in my life. But in a way I do what aboriginal people do with their art; I express my views and opinions as well as some religious beliefs. I try to visualise and display my opinions and interpretations through my artworks which is in some ways similar to that of aboriginal art, that they display their beliefs and interpretations through theirs. Another that I’m not sure can really be seen as a culture is music. Music inspires me greatly and is often the focus of my artworks. And as it is I see it as one of the single greatest influences in my life.
Study on graphical representation of personal development
Study on investigating the GD industry and jobsTomas marsden
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Welcome to Red Meets Blue Design, a creative design and communications agency with an absolute focus on effective solutions to your front line communication needs, through highly effective graphic design solutions, website development, search engine optimisation, marketing campaigns and video production. We specialise in every aspect of the customer experience with an emphasis on utilising contemporary design and technology to create highly effective and cost effective communication to the market place. Red Meets Blue offers a range of design and media services utilising both the experience and creativity of our multi-disciplined team. Red Meets Blue is an active member of all appropriate industry groups.
After researching several design agencies and job opportunities in graphic design around Australia I noticed a few things. If you are looking at making $100 000 per year then there aren’t going to be those types of jobs in your typical regional areas. The real money is in the big cities such as Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide. I also discovered that there is much more demand for Web Designers these days. This shows the development and possibilities of new technology.
Study on the technical challenges of graphic design
1. What are they? There are many challenges when it comes to graphic design. Technology is always changing and as a graphic designer you must learn all aspects of it and learn how best to utilise these new technologies. Programs are a must for graphic designers and a designer is expected to know programs such as the Adobe suite inside and out. Clients are a big challenge as well. As the designer you must be able to meet their vision of whatever it is you are designing for them with whatever software that is available to you, and it must be done in the best way possible.
2. How do we solve them? Solving these problems can be time consuming but it must be done. Constant research is a must. You must always keep up to date with what is out there when it comes to new technologies and or new trends. There are hundreds of tutorials out there on the internet as well as in magazines on how to further develop your skills in things such as the Adobe suite programs. When it comes to a client set out a serious of questions that you believe will answer key points in the designing of the client’s job.
3. What resources are out there? As said above there are hundreds of resources out there that can help you further developing your knowledge and your skills. Online tutorials on all the creative programs. Magazines with a series of new adjustments and techniques to approaching your work. As well as this there are also courses out there that offer further development into the design programs and ways on approaching clients.
4. What is your annual budget to pay for these resources? For me at this point in time my budget is around about $2000. I have recently purchased all the updated programs to help with my progression throughout the next two years. My payments for the TAFE are also included in this budged and I buy one magazine every month on developing skills in Photoshop and illustrator which ends at around $30 a month.
5. How could ABN benefit your financial approach to these resources? Having an ABN can become very useful especially when it comes to the purchasing of any programs or resources that you may need. It all comes down to tax. As long as your purchases are work related like programs, travel expenses or even a whole new PC/MAC, you can claim most of it back at the end of the financial year helping you financially.
6. How do major platforms (MAC/PC) affect technical approaches to projects? In my opinion I prefer the MAC to the PC as I feel that the MAC handles all the programs far better and gives you several shortcuts that seem easier to use than the ones on the PC. But in terms of designing things for clients such as a web document you must be careful when designing with a MAC. The PC cannot always read files made by a MAC and since a majority of people out in the world are in fact PC users rather than MAC it is an important issue that must not be overlooked when designing web documents.
Study on Criticism and psychology of the critique process
1. How did you perform in critiquing your assigned map? I believe that I critiqued the map to the best of my ability. The map I was assigned was already very well designed and there were very few issues with it. The only issues I found with the map were the choice of typeface, the use of the phrase “common aussie” which I felt was inappropriate for children between the ages of three and six, as well as a few images on the map that simply looked like they had been duplicated. Another issue but not a massive one was simply the sizes of the type used to identify each capital city, something that could be fixed rather easily. But overall I felt that the map was very appropriate for the chosen market and was very aesthetically pleasing as well functional.
2. How did the student critiquing your work perform? Unfortunately due to poor time management my map was incomplete on the date of the critique. But based on what I handed in I felt that Elise critiqued my work very well. She identified most areas on the map that needed major improvement as well as identifying key points about the map that she believed to be perfect for kids. Given the amount of work that was handed in I believe she couldn’t have done any better.
3. How did the critiquing improve your map? I went into the critique with a completely open mind and took in every piece of criticism given. Based on the critique held I redesigned my map and came out with a far more functional and aesthetically pleasing map. I changed the characters to make them appear more cartoon illustrated as well as changing the landmarks themselves to give them more of a cartoon feel. I also changed the colours used in my map to better identify the desert area of Australia.
4. Is there any criticism that you are going to ignore and if so, why? I did not ignore any of the criticism that was put forward about my work as I feel that in the end it all helped me design a much more affective map.
5. What attitude should you take into a critique? Why? I believe that you should always enter a critique with an open mind and be willing to take on any type of criticism that could be beneficial to you and your work. I feel this way because without taking onboard other people’s opinions your work will not nearly be as successful or functional as it could be.
6. How can you prepare to give criticism? It usually helps to see the work before hand so that you can identify ways to improve it before speaking out. Another way is to organise a set of questions that you can refer to as well as use as a checklist.
7. Are there some general guidelines in Graphic Design that can help you provide criticism? What are they? There are many guidelines that you can use as a platform to ask questions or as a checklist when critiquing someone else’s work. Some of these include balance, variety, unity, dominance, proportion and hierarchy.
Critical Theory is one of the names given to a series of new approaches to the study of culture, literature and thought that developed during the 1960s, primarily in France. It philosophy, literary criticism, Marxism, psychoanalysis, feminism and many others. The term has two different meanings with different origins and histories: one originating in sociology and the other in literary criticism. This has led to the very literal use of 'critical theory' as an umbrella term to describe theoretical critique.
Critical Theory often challenges our common sense assumptions about the world and poses controversial questions, including: ‘Is the author dead?’, ‘Do we speak language or does language speak us?’, ‘Are human beings determined by their desire?’, ‘Is writing gendered?’
Critical Theory is a way of thinking that encourages us to critically approach our assumptions about ourselves and the world. It teaches us to ‘look awry’ at what we take for granted.
In ‘looking awry’ Critical Theory finds the forms or structures that underpin our experience, including our experience of literature. In this way we can see the world and literature in new and unexpected ways.
Literary theory refers to an assumption or system of assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedure based on particular body of knowledge, devised to analyse, predict, or otherwise explain the nature or behaviour of literature, including description, analysis, interpretation, and evaluation of literary works. It deals with different dimensions of literature as a collection of texts through which authors evoke more or less fictitious worlds for the imagination of readers. We can look at any work of literature by passing special attention to one of several aspects: its language and structure; its intended purpose; the information and worldview it conveys; or its effect on an audience; or any other aspect including our personal reflections. First critical approach to literature appears in the writing of the classical Greek philosopher, Plato. Attempts have been made to divide the theories into four groups as suggested by M.H. Abrams in his The Mirror and the Lamp (1953), and Hazard Adams in his Critical Theory Since Plato (1990). M.H.Abrams, in his seminal book, The Mirror and the Lamp, provides us an insight to grasp the literary theories since Plato.
The mimetic theories evaluate a literary work of art in terms of imitation which is the most ancient way of judging any work of art in relation to reality. For this purpose, all these theories treat a work of art as photographic reproduction i.e. art's truth to life, poetic truth etc. This approach unquestionably started from Plato and then Aristotle, and runs through many theorists of Renaissance and Neoclassicism up to some modern theorists as well. Pragmatic theories, on the other hand, emphasize the reader's relation to the work. This approach can be seen in the writing of Plato,but a great surge of interest to the poetic effect of literature to the readers occurred among the Roman critics notably Horace and Longinus.
Later, in the Renaissance time, Sidney showed similar interests by saying "poesie should teach and delight". Similarly, in the Middle Ages and also in 18th century Neoclassical Age, a strongly moralistic and didactic criticism shared the same doctrine with aesthetic modes also, that emphasized the effect of literary work on the reader. Similarly, Expressive theories, the third mode of Abram's orientation, came with Romanticism in 18th and 19th century Europe with its roots in Rousseau's writing. The idea that the writers has personalities to express remained at the center, as most of the creations were authorial. The criticism included intire biography and gave a relative look to the writings.
Ultimately the Objective theories, emerging principally from aesthetic speculation derived from Kant treat any work of art as in some way autonomous. T.S. Eliot and T.E. Hulme furthered this idea that work of art has an internal relation that gives birth to the work to be a poetic work. It is represented by a phrase "Poetry for poetry; Sake" which was used as a title for a well known essay by A.C. Beardsley. This idea developed along with two independent lines: one of Russian Formalism and other of American New Critics. Both of these modes attacked imitation, authorial intention and readers' response in analyzing literary works. They emphasized on the text as the primary issue of criticism. Hazard Adams, in the "Introduction" to Critical Theory since Plato says that Abram's classification that we discussed above appears finally ineffectual because of the following two reasons: one is that the division with the simple taxonomy is less effective because we cannot always define the theories along the eras. And the second is that the orientation fails to grasp all brands of literary theories as it lacks a sound philosophical emphasis in different eras. He provides a fourfold model of orientation: Ontological, Epistemological, Linguistic and Politico-Cultural theories.
The two meanings of critical theory—from different intellectual traditions associated with the meaning of criticism and critique—derive ultimately from the Greek word kritikos meaning judgment or discernment, and in their present forms go back to the 18th century. While they can be considered completely independent intellectual pursuits, increasingly scholars are interested in the areas of critique where the two overlap.
To use an epistemological distinction, critical theory in literary studies is ultimately a form of hermeneutics, i.e. knowledge via interpretation to understand the meaning of human texts and symbolic expressions, including the interpretation of texts which are themselves implicitly or explicitly the interpretation of other texts. Critical social theory is, in contrast, a form of self-reflective knowledge involving both understanding and theoretical explanation to reduce entrapment in systems of domination or dependence, obeying the emancipatory interest in expanding the scope of autonomy and reducing the scope of domination.
From this perspective, much literary critical theory, since it is focused on interpretation and explanation rather than on social transformation, would be regarded as positivistic or traditional rather than critical theory in the Kantian or Marxian sense. Critical theory in literature and the humanities in general does not necessarily involve a normative dimension, whereas critical social theory does, either through criticizing society from some general theory of values, norms, or through criticizing it in terms of its own espoused values.
Graphic design relies on critical theory more than people know. Criticism is essential to graphic design and is one of the only ways that we as designers can learn what mistakes we have made and what is needed to improve on them. But not everyone thinks the same. Everyone has their own opinion and their own thoughts regardless of the subject. But it is not only art that can be critiqued. As explained above it can expand into not only the world of art and design but into the world of literature as well. This is turn shows just how important critical theory is and how embedded it is in us as human beings. Graphic design is all about creating beautiful looking art that is both functional and aesthetically pleasing to all audiences. In this line of work we are made out of criticism. We receive it and we evolve to help our works blend and become acceptable.
There are people out there who cannot handle any forms of criticism which unfortunately gives them no room to adapt and change their styles whether it is in sports, writing or art. There are also those out there who have fears for giving criticism, simply being afraid that their opinion might go unnoticed. Some also carry the feeling that their opinion could severely hurt the recipient’s feelings. These are things that everyone must get over for without bringing things to people’s attention they will not have the ability to change and adapt to situations through constructive criticism.
It is also through our work once we have completed our designs such as a brochure or logo, not only do people start to show criticism towards the works themselves but the businesses we designed them for as well. Our work greatly involves every form of criticism out there but also relies on it. Critical theory will always play a part in not only graphic design but the way we see, hear and do things throughout our lives.